The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer; Counsels and Maxims

Juvenile Nonfiction/
#Juvenile Nonfiction #Lifestyles
rating 0 (votes: 0)

Book's description:

Excerpt CHAPTER I. GENERAL RULES.—SECTION 1. The first and foremost rule for the wise conduct of life seems to me to be contained in a view to which Aristotle parenthetically refers in the Nichomachean Ethics:[1] [Greek: o phronimoz to alupon dioke e ou to aedu] or, as it may be rendered, not pleasure, but freedom from pain, is what the wise man will aim at. [Footnote 1: vii. (12) 12.] The truth of this remark turns upon the negative character of happiness,—the fact that pleasure is only the negation of pain, and that pain is the positive element in life. Though I have given a detailed proof of this proposition in my chief work,[1] I may supply one more illustration of it here, drawn from a circumstance of daily occurrence. Suppose that, with the exception of some sore or painful spot, we are physically in a sound and healthy condition: the sore of this one spot, will completely absorb our attention, causing us to lose the sense of general well-being, and destroying all our comfort in life. In the same way, when all our affairs but one turn out as we wish, the single instance in which our aims are frustrated is a constant trouble to us, even though it be something quite trivial. We think a great deal about it, and very little about those other and more important matters in which we have been successful. In both these cases what has met with resistance is the will; in the one case, as it is objectified in the organism, in the other, as it presents itself in the struggle of life; and in both, it is plain that the satisfaction of the will consists in nothing else than that it meets with no resistance. It is, therefore, a satisfaction which is not directly felt; at most, we can become conscious of it only when we reflect upon our condition. But that which checks or arrests the will is something positive; it proclaims its own presence. All pleasure consists in merely removing this check—in other words, in freeing us from its action; and hence pleasure is a state which can never last very long. [Footnote 1: Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. Vol. I., p. 58.] This is the true basis of the above excellent rule quoted from Aristotle, which bids us direct our aim, not toward securing what is pleasurable and agreeable in life, but toward avoiding, as far as possible, its innumerable evils. If this were not the right course to take, that saying of Voltaire's, Happiness is but a dream and sorrow is real, would be as false as it is, in fact, true. A man who desires to make up the book of his life and determine where the balance of happiness lies, must put down in his accounts, not the pleasures which he has enjoyed, but the evils which he has escaped. That is the true method of eudaemonology; for all eudaemonology must begin by recognizing that its very name is a euphemism, and that to live happily only means to live less unhappily—to live a tolerable life. There is no doubt that life is given us, not to be enjoyed, but to be overcome—to be got over. There are numerous expressions illustrating this—such as degere vitam, vita defungi; or in Italian, si scampa cosi; or in German, man muss suchen durchzukommen; er wird schon durch die Welt kommen, and so on....
[view full text]

Modern technologies allow to collect on a small device many e-books and read them almost anywhere at any time. To enjoy literary work not need to search for books in libraries, just find it online and download free the required text. This website has been gathered literature in formats: jar, jad, txt, fb2, epub, doc, suitable for reading on mobile devices (cell phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablets, MP3-players, bookreaders). jar (Java ARchive) - this is zipped file that can be used in mobile phones. In this archive you can upload collect to phone, applications and books. fb2 (FictionBook) - a formated electronic text as XML-documents in which each element and attribute described beforehand defined tag. Properly prepared electronic text in FictionBook contains all the necessary information about the book - structured text, illustrations, title, year of publication, author. EPUB (book) - is a ZIP-file, compressed in a special way. This archive containing files (formatted XHTML), additional files illustrations, fonts and so on.

Text loading...
Wait please.